In my previous post, I explained how I setup KVM. Today, I’ll describe creating virtual machines that run under KVM.
Creating with Yast
The easiest way to do this with openSUSE, is to use Yast. Click on “Virtualization” and then on “Create virtual machines …”.
In the first step (step 1 of 5), you specify whether the source for the virtual machine is an iso file, a network install, a PXE network boot or an existing disk image. For me, the iso file is the most suitable source. On the second screen (step 2 of 5), I can browse for the iso file.
On the third screen, I can specify how much memory to use. On my system, it defaults to 1G (or 1024M). For my first install, I took that default. Since that time, I have been upping it to 2G or 4G. I can also specify how much CPU to assign. I have 4-core machine. This defaults to assigning 1 cpu. I have been increasing that to 2 cpu. For my first install, however, I left it at the default of 1 cpu.
Up until now, I have mainly tested other distros by installing them in a spare partition. And I still see that as the most thorough way of testing. So I didn’t bother with virtualization.
That has now changed. I decided that it was time to give virtualization a try.
So where to start. Many people use “virtualbox” as their way of doing virtualization. I did consider that. But I decided that it would be better to use a method more directly supported by openSUSE.
Of course, “virtualbox” is supported, in the sense that it is in the repos. So wanting openSUSE support doesn’t completely rule it out. But it was not my choice.
The other main options are Xen virtualization and KVM virtualization. There’s actually a useful guide available: Virtualization Guide.
I’m a couple of days late to the party. I had intended to post on Wednesday, but our refrigerator broke so I had more urgent concerns.
The release itself went quite smoothly. I have not tried to install with the final installer. But I have installed some of the pre-release versions. And those went very well. Most people seem to be installing without problems.
Leap 42.3 is only a relatively small change from 42.2. It is still at Plasma 5 version 5.8.7. As I recall, 42.2 was released as Plasma 5.8.2 or 5.8.3, and later updates brought it to 5.8.7.
The main change that I am seeing with the KDE desktop, is that now “konqueror” comes from Plasma 5, instead of being the Plasma 4 version. However, “rekonq” is still from Plasma 4. And “Amarok” is apparently from Plasma 4.
I did another install of 42.3 on Thursday. I guess I’m a tad slow reporting that. This install was for Build 0283. I installed it on my main desktop. At the moment, I am still running 42.2 on that computer. I installed 42.3 on a separate area of the disk.
I do plan to soon switch to running 42.3 full time. That’s the best way of testing this beta release. The final release is due in about one month.
Downloading and installing
I followed my usual procedure. I used “aria2c” to download the iso for the DVD installer. I used “wget” to download the sha256 checksum file. Then I verified the gpg signature on the checksum file, and verified that the checksum matched the downloaded iso.
The next step was to write the iso file to a USB flash drive. I used “dd_rescue” for that. Then I booted the USB, and installed 42.3
Installation itself went well. Everything worked about as expected. Following the install, I booted into 42.3, and did a little final tweaking. And I also added additional software that is not on the install media but is in the repos.
I’m no longer doing monthly installs of Tumbleweed. But I do installs when there is a reason.
In this case it was another computer. And what use is a computer without some form of linux?
My wife purchased a new laptop for use with Windows 10. So I got the previous laptop as a hand-me-down. I already have a laptop with Windows 7, and also dual-booting to openSUSE. So I did not need another Windows 7 system. So this became my linux laptop.
Around two months ago, another computer died. That was an older desktop — the one with an nVidia graphics card. That older desktop is now in computer heaven (otherwise known as the electronics recycling center). With the arrival of this hand-me-down, I’m now back to my former number of computers. But this one has Intel graphics, so I no longer have anything with nVidia graphics.
I wanted to use an encrypted LVM for this install. And I find it more convenient to prepare the disk ahead of time.
I don’t often post about Windows, because I mainly use linux. But this is a Windows post. I should mention that the computer involved is a UEFI box, since that might be relevant.
My main desktop has both Windows 8.1 and openSUSE 42.2. On Friday, I attempted to install the May updates for Windows. The updates are the two listed in the subject line above.
The updates failed.
They seemed succeed. I got the message to restart windows to complete the update. So I rebooted. Then I saw the messages about “working with updates”. At around the 30% mark, it rebooted. Then, on reboot, it continued until the 100% mark. That looked good.
But then a message:
We couldn’t complete the updates
Don’t turn off your computer
I’m a bit slow in reporting this. I saw the announcement on May 5th, and I downloaded and installed on that same date. This was for build 0184 of 42.3. This was followed a few days later by build 0229. And yesterday we saw build 0243.
I downloaded the install DVD for build 0184 from the download site. That site should have the current build during the testing phase. As of the time of this posting, you can find build 0243 there.
As usual, I downloaded with “aria2c”. I also downloaded the sha256 checksum file (I used “wget” for that download). I verified the gpg signature on the checksum file. And then I made sure that the downloaded iso matched the checksum.
If you install Ubuntu on a computer with secure-boot enabled, then it will probably boot. And maybe that’s all you want.
If so, you probably won’t be concerned about what I am describing here.
However, secure-boot is supposed to verify many of the steps in the boot path. And that’s where I see Ubuntu as broken.
I’m basing this on tests that I have done on Ubuntu-17.04 and Ubuntu-gnome-17.04.
First a brief summary of the problems that I am seeing:
- Ubuntu will boot without checking a signature on the kernel.
- Under some circumstances, Ubuntu will complain about a bad signature, and refuse to boot, even though secure-boot has been disabled.
I have already reviewed Ubuntu-17.04. However, the Ubuntu folk (i.e. Canonical) had already announced that, starting with 18.04, they would switch their mainline version from the Unity desktop to the Gnome desktop. So I decided to also test out the 17.04 version of Ubuntu with Gnome desktop.
I installed Ubuntu-gnome in an already existing encrypted LVM. The machine that I used actually has two hard drives, with an encrypted LVM on each drive. So this was a different LVM from the one that I used for the mainline Ubuntu (with unity). Currently, both versions of Ubuntu are installed on that machine.
Ubuntu 17.04 was announced a few days ago. I had already decided that I would install it, and do a little testing. So, once I saw the announcement, I started a download.
To download, I followed the links from the announcement to the download page. From there, I selected the torrent download. I was using the “vivaldi” browser, and it gave me several options with the torrent link. I chose the option to open the file. And that started the download with “ktorrent”.
I also downloaded “SHA256SUMS.desktop” and “SHA256SUMS.desktop.gpg”. Next, I checked the gpg signature with
gpg --verify SHA256SUMS.desktop.gpg SHA256SUMS.desktop
which showed that I had a good download of the checksum file. After the torrent download had completed, I checked its validity with
sha256sum -c SHA256SUMS.desktop
That reported that the downloaded iso file was ok. It also reported that some files did not exist. I ignored that. It was just that the checksum file had checksums for other isos that I had not downloaded.